【獎項 Prizes】 銅獎 Bronze Award
【公司／團隊 Company/Group】Takashige Yamashita Office
Toranoko Nursery 旨在透過向環境開放的結構積極地將自然光和風引入建築物來減少能源使用。以不同角度定向的彎曲屋頂面板，可增強從各個側邊傳遞到室內的光線亮度。醫護室上方的屋頂，其深度最大，相對容易變暗，因此分為兩個部分，讓陽光透過間隙進入房間。玻璃幕牆和寬大的窗戶也有助於日光照射，以減少空間使用電燈的需求。面向南方，拱形屋頂跨越午餐室前方的中央花園，以控制引入室內空間的陽光量，並進一步決定了室內溫度。屋頂高且寬，沒有任何柱子截斷中跨。其可在最大限度內提高陽光穿透力，使房間在冬季也能變得溫暖。其深度可以作為一個巨大的遮篷，以便在夏天陽光較強的時候為托兒所提供遮蔭。陰涼的花園也可作為進入室內之前降低空氣溫度的起點位置。佔主立面和休息室一半以上的滑動門，以及一系列窗戶和位於午餐室和醫護室對面的大型窗戶，可在整體建築物內提供自然通風。
由於日本目前面臨低出生率和人口高齡化問題，醫療/ 護理/ 福利/兒童保育的重要性也日益增加。因此，需要優先考慮的是，應在必要時維持和擴大構成該系統基礎的設施。在此情況下，「為退休後的老年生活做好準備」與「在未來撫養孩子」是不可分割的課題。而這也讓我們有機會重新評估社會福利的內涵。Toranoko Nursery 確實能夠成為此類案件的合適典範。托兒所的象徵性拱形木製屋頂被老年人的生活輔助設施包圍，並且面向各個方向，以歡迎人們到訪。巨大屋頂下的花園已成為兒童嬉戲的廣場，而來自設施的老年人和工作人員，以及當地居民則可隨意進行互動。負責將其孩子送往日間托育中心的設施工作人員則可得利於大型窗戶，因為他們可以在路過時輕鬆地從外面查看孩子在室內的狀況。Toranoko 不僅可以作為日間托育中心，還可作為當地社區中心的開放式設施。托兒所的這種開放式空間設定只有在此特殊情況下才能實現。在此特殊情況下，所有成年人都能照顧孩子，而日本的普通托兒所通常受到高度保護，現在則因為隱私和安全問題而呈現封閉狀態。我們相信銀髮族和幼兒園設施之間的積極互動將產生增效作用，並同時惠及兩個群體。
A small nursery with a big roof: The project is a small nursery in a small town in Yamanashi prefecture, Japan. Most of the local residents are aged, living in modest houses and farms scattered in the area. Along with a spectacular view of Mt. Fuji, the town creates a peaceful, but at the same time, a bit deserted atmosphere. The client operates three assisted-living facilities for the seniors around the project site. The initial concept was to build a public venue for the users of the facilities and the local residents, then the idea was further specified to make a lounge area for the larger range of the public and a daycare center to look after the children of the workers at the facility as well as kids from the town. On top of the requirement, we wanted this project to become a trigger to infuse life into the desolate neighborhood and further flourish the local community. Located in the centre of the enclosed site, the roofs are oriented in various angles, opening towards all possible directions to allow physical and visual approach of anybody from any route. The curved and split roof panels also help augment the amount of natural light delivered to the interior area. Gentle curvature of each roof creates a sequence of scenery: they divide the program to a garden, lounge, lunchroom, nursing room and office, while the spaces are still kept connected as one. Children playing around, elderly neighbors taking a rest, mothers chatting with each other, and cats basking in the sun – there is a place for everyone under the roof. Toranoko nursery is designed in hopes of creating a core space of the community where people would gather around, as if under a big tree.
It is not a regular nursery but an integrated scene with the neighboring facilities. Not just because some of the children at the daycare are sons/daughters of the facility workers, but due to the enormous bright energy the little kids bring to the daily life of the residents and patients of the facilities, they are everyone’s grandchildren. As the nursery is located in the center of the facility zone, there are lots of chances for the interaction, such as the moment the children come out for outdoor activities with the teachers or the neighbors take a walk around or pass by the area. The large window and the glass facade of the nursery allows the children and seniors in the neighbor see and say hi to each other daily. The lounge area is for everyone from the facility and the town to drop by or stay for a cup of tea. When the timing is right, they will also be able to see and communicate with the children that came out to the garden right beside the lounge for playing with sand. This main garden under the big arched roof offers a place for various public events as well that involves not only the nursery kids but the entire local community: the nursery sometimes provide a talent show of the children and invite the nearby residents, utilizing the balcony as a stage and the garden as the audience seats; when there is a local festival, the garden is open towards the plaza of the facility across the street and become an event venue. Structural system: In order to achieve the lightness of the roofs, 50x50 laminated veneer lumber (LVL) was used to produce the structural ribs in about 100 different shapes, which were then sandwiched between two layers of 9mm structural plywood. The curved section line of the rib elements are cut out of the LVL panel with CNC milling machine and it made possible the variety of form and size of each piece. The bottom layer of the sandwiching panels, i.e. the ceiling side, is cut in 95mm-width and random length to laminate the ceiling surface while functioning as a structural element at the same time. Any extra layers that may have been taken for the finishing material were eliminated by this strategy, enabling the minimum thickness on the exterior roof. The roof is strong enough to cover a large span of maximum 10m by just 86mm thickness without any supporting elements mid-span. Steel portal frame by H-100x100 sets boundary between rooms, over which the LVL ribs stretch. The use of wood on the roof structure and also on the finishing was the best choice to achieve the soft and smooth configuration as well as the natural and warm atmosphere to fill the big open space.
The Toranoko Nursery is designed to eliminate energy use by actively allowing natural light and wind into the building through its structure open towards the environment. Curved roof panels oriented in all different angles augment the brightness to be delivered into the room from various sides. The roofs over the nursing room, which has the biggest depth and would relatively get dim easily, are split into two that sunshine permeate the room through the gap. Glass facade and wide windows help bringing daylight in as well, diminishing the need for the use of electric lights. Facing south, the arched roof spanning over the central garden in front of the lunch room performs to control the amount of sunlight introduced into the interior space, which further determines the indoor temperature. The roof rises tall and broad without any columns interrupting midspan, maximizing sunlight penetration to warm the rooms up during winter. Its large depth acts as a giant canopy to provide shade over the nursery during summer when the sun is higher. The shaded garden also functions as a threshold to cool down the air before entering the room. Sliding doors that occupy more than half of the main facade and lounge room, along with a series of windows and a large window on the opposite side of the lunch room and nursing room, enable natural air ventilation through the entire building.
As Japan is currently facing a low-birth and aging population problem, the importance of medical treatment/nursing/welfare/childcare has been increasing. The priority is thus to maintain and expand, if necessary, the facilities which form the fundamental of the system. Under such circumstance, treating seniors’ life after retirement and raising children for the future would rather be inseparable issues. it would also be an opportunity to reassess what social welfare is meant to be. Toranoko Nursery is indeed to become a proper model for such case. The symbolic arched wooden roofs of the nursery, surrounded by assisted-living facilities for seniors, are facing various directions welcoming people. The garden under the huge roof has become a plaza where children frolic and the seniors and staffs from the facility, and further the local residents drop by and interact casually. The big windows benefit the workers at the facility who sent their children to the daycare as they can easily check the kids from outside when passing by. Toranoko functions not just as a daycare but as an open facility in the heart of the local community. This kind of open-operation of the nursery is only possible in this specific project under such special condition where the children are looked after by all the adults around, while regular kindergartens in Japan are usually highly protected and closed for privacy and safety issue nowadays. We believe the active interaction between the silver and preschool facilities would create a synergy effect and advantage both groups.